Verbal morphology

Kotanian verbs have the most complex morphology of all word classes, as agglutination is often heavily used. The verb can be marked for tense, aspect and mood (several categories) and voice. Verbs are marked by means of suffixes attached to the verb stem. The final compound is suffixed by the verb suffix a.

The order of suffixes from the different groups is voice, aspect, tense, mood. The order of suffixes within a group is described below for each group [TODO!].

Tense, aspect, mood and voice

Tense

Kotanian has two past tenses, three future tenses and a relative tense. The present tense is unmarked. The following suffixes mark tense:

Aspect

Kotanian has eleven aspects, dealing both with the stretch of time during which an event takes place (i.e. just currently, over a long period of time), and the nature of the event (continuous, interrupted, habitual). The following suffixes mark aspect:

Note that many of these aspect have a mood quality or are traditionally considered moods, most notably the potential, generic and declarative, but also the durative, continuous and universal. Also, the perfect has a tense aspect, as the actual event took place in the past. All of these are grouped morphologically with the 'true' aspects progressive, inceptive, habitual and repetitive however, and therefore treated as aspects in Kotanian grammar.

Mood

Kotanian has many moods, grooped in various catagories. Some aspects (such as the generic) may be considered moods, but are not treated as such for morphological reasons (i.e. they group with other aspects). The indicative or declarative mood is unmarked.

The following suffixes mark directive moods:

Note that the first five moods have a decreasing degree of expected or required conformance, from complete conformance (imperative) to entirely optional conformance (suggestive and invitive). The precative mood is the only directive mood which is beneficiary to the speaker. It is equal in expected conformity to the invitive, but the latter is to the benifit of the listener instead.

All other Kotanian moods are deontic and epistemic, non-evidential moods (Kotanian has no seperate, verb-encoded evidentiality). They are grouped into four categories, indicating:

The conditional moods are the only moods that may be grammatically required (in conditional sentences). They express a neutral point of view with regard to the truth value, and can therefore be considered irrealis indicatives. The moods indicating degree of certainty can be devided into two groups, depending on the evidentiality of what is said: those indicating personal information and those indicating secondhand information, in various degrees of certainty. The concord moods indicate that what is said has (or will) come about as a result of an agreement, arrangement or appointment, or is a generally held believe or tradition. The moods indicating personal opinion contain various related and non-related moods indicating what the opinion of the speaker is regarding the truth value of what is said, whether the speaker agrees with what is said, or whether the speaker considers what is said a moral obligation.

The following suffixes mark conditionality:

The following suffixes mark certainty:

The first three moods indicate that what is said is the result of personal observation, in increasing degree of certainty (although these degrees are implicit and variable, as the source of each mood is different, i.e. speculation based on evidence, expectation based on prior knowledge, and deduction based on evidence and/or knowledge or conviction). The last four moods indicate that the information being presented is secondhand, also in increasing degrees of certainty (more explicit than the personal certainty moods, from very uncertain (dubitative) to almost certain (quotative)).

The following suffixes mark concord:

Joint concord is between speaker and listener, disjoint concord between the speaker and some other party or between the listener and some other party, and external concord is between third parties. The traditional is used for generally held believes, convictions or traditions.

The following suffixes mark opinion and attitude:

The acceptive and rejective indicate the speakers (strong) believe or disbelieve in the truth of what is said. The satisfactive and dissatisfactive indicate the speaker feels a positive or negative effect of what is said. The approbative and reprobative indicate the speaker (strongly) approves or disapproves with what is said. The obligative indicates the speaker feels what is said is a moral obligation.

Voice

Kotanian has three voices to promote each of the three secondary relations to the grammatical subject slot, and has a middle voice to indicate the subject is more an experiencer than an agent. The following suffixes mark voice:

Derivational morphology

Verb prefixes

There are a large number of derivational prefixes that when attached to a verb alter its meaning. Some of these are productive and can be applied to almost any verb, others are restricted to certain semantic domains and/or have idiosyncratic meanings. Note that many of these prefixes also occur as regular syllables that are part of a stem (in which case they do not have the meaning described here). A verb may or may not alter its semantic properties (e.g. the number of constituents) as a result of being prefixed. A non-exhaustive list of derivational prefixes can be found here. Some examples:

prefixmeaningexample
aback, de-, undoarama - to count down / undress, from rama - to count (up) / dress
gotransfer, movementgoara - to sell, from ara - to trade
gokalaga - to pass on, from kalaga - to give
kòntogetherkòngala - to meet, from gala - to find
transformnôralea - to translate, from ralea - to speak

Verbs to other parts of speech

Verbal nominalizers

Kotanian has ten suffixes to derive nouns from verbs. Five suffixes are used for deriving a verb's participants (agent, patient, instrument), three suffixes are used to derive a verbal noun of sorts and two suffixes are used to derive more abstract concepts.

1Note that it is common to include the part-of-speech suffix when describing derivational suffixes.

Verbal adjectivizer

Kotanian has four suffixes to derive adjectives (participles) from verbs.

Verbal adverbalizers

Kotanian has two suffixes to derive adverbs (participles) from verbs.

Other parts of speech to verbs

Adjectival verbalizers

Adpositional verbalizers

Compound derivations

Tense

Present tense

Description

The present tense places the event in the present time. The present tense is mostly used in combination with a suffix of aspect (more so than e.g. the past or future tenses) to further define the setting in time. The present tense is also used for story telling, the 'present time' being relative to the setting of the story.

Formation

The present tense is formed implicitly by the absence of a tense suffix.

Examples

Note that the absent of an aspect suffix in the last example is due to a syntactic rule involving stative verbs, see todo.

Past tense

Description

The past tense is used to describe an event that took place somewhere in the past, without implicitly specifying when. It can be used with suffixes of aspect, although it is not as frequently as the present tense. If no aspect is present, it must be derived from context. Most likely, it will have an implied perfective aspect, as the described event took place in the past and is probably finished. Since Kotanian does not have a general perfective aspect, this goes unmarked.

Formation

The past tense is formed by the suffix ast.

Examples

Distant past tense

Description

The distant past tense is used either to describe an event in the distant past, or to describe an event taking place a certain amount of time before something else in the past. What exactly denotes the distant past, or what that amount of time is, is of course not strictly defined and depends on the normal time frame of the action. E.g. when talking about a certain person's actions in the past, those he committed as a child (or as a young adult) may be referred to with the distant past tense if he is aged now or more recent events are discussed.

When an event in the past happened before, but relatively close to another event in the past, the distant past tense is not used. Instead, the relative tense is used.

Formation

The distant past tense is formed by the suffix as.

Examples

General future tense

Description

The general future tense describes an event that will take place somewhere in the future, without reference to a specific moment. It is used especially when the exact time of occurence is uncertain, unknown, unspecified or unimportant. It is used to make general statements about the future. If used in combination with a temporal specifier, the specifier cannot refer to a specific point in time, but must be of a general nature, e.g. 'once', 'some day', 'in the next century', etc.

Comparison to other future tenses

The general future tense is different from the near future tense in that the latter describes an event that is expected to take place within a relative short period of time after the statement is made, while the general future tense normally describes an event that is not expected to take place real soon.

The general future tense is different from the known future tense in that the latter describes an event of which the expected time of occurence is clear and often specified.

Formation

The general future tense is formed by the suffix ièt.

Examples

Near future tense

Description

The near future tense is used to describe an event that will happen in the (relatively) near future. If used with a temporal specifier (broken link), the specifier must refer to some point in time close to the present. If used without a temporal specifier, an implicit 'soon' is implied.

Comparison to other future tenses

See description here.

Formation

The near future tense is formed by the suffix èt.

Examples

Known future tense

Description

The known future tense is used to describe an event that will happen at a known time in the future. It is typically used with a temporal specifier (broken link). If used without one, the time of occurence should be commenly understood.

Comparison to other future tenses

See description here.

Formation

The known future tense is formed by the suffix òl.

Examples

Relative tense

Description

The relative tense is used to describe an event that takes place at a certain time relative to the time of the main clause or the time of the discourse. Its has two main uses. The first use is when the past tense is used as the base tense (e.g. to tell a past event), in which case the relative tense is used to offset from that. The second use is when using subclauses, to offset the content to the subclause to that of the main clause.

Formation

The relative tense is formed by the suffix ô.

Examples

Aspect

Progressive aspect

Description

The progressive aspect is used to describe an event currently happening. It is typically used to emphasize the continuing, dynamic nature of the action. The progressive aspect cannot usually be used with stative verbs (e.g. trieta - to know, sèkta - to be located) and many semi-stative verbs which express an event that does not include much motion (e.g. gòdwa - to sit, jëwa - to sleep).

Even if the a verb is not marked with the progressive (nor with any other aspect), it may still have a progressive nature (especially in the present tense), but without the emphasis on the dynamics.

Comparison to other imperfective aspects

The progressive aspect is different from both the durative aspect and the continuous aspect in that the progressive focusses on the present, can only be used with dynamic verbs, and describes an action that is continuous in nature. In contrast, both the durative and the continuous describe a larger period, can be used with (semi-)stative verbs, and when describing an action (as opposed to a state), the action may be non-continuous during the period described. The durative and the continuous differ in that the durative typically focusses on the time the event has taken (and therefore implicitely semi-perfective), while the continuous typically focusses on the event itself (and therefore implicitely imperfective).

Formation

The progressive aspect can be formed in two ways. The most common is duplication of the final consonant and the verbal ending of the bare verb. Verbs not having a final consonant (i.e. verbs with a root ending in a vowel) use the suffix aw, as do verbs with a stem ending in j, verbs formed with the adjectival verbalizer òy (although these verbs rarely get the progressive aspect as most express stative or semi-stative states) and verbs with a voice suffix.

Examples

Durative aspect

Description

The durative aspect is used to describe an event that started in the past, is still continuing, and is expected to keep continuing into at least the near future. It is often used in combination with the temporal adposition nyèni (during, for).

Comparison to other imperfective aspects

See description here.

Formation

The durative aspect is formed by the suffix at.

Examples

Continuous aspect

Description

The continuous aspect is used to describe an event that has started in the past, is currently taking place and will continue into the future, where it is expected to end at a given time.

A special use of the continuous is with the verbs isla and baka, forming islèla and bakèla, meaning 'to become'

Comparison to other imperfective aspects

See description here.

Formation

The continuous aspect is formed by the suffix èl.

Examples

Inceptive aspect

Description

The inceptive aspect is used to describe an event that has just started or is in the process of starting. Several verbs have a derived, non-literal meaning when used with the inceptive (see second example).

Formation

The inceptive aspect is formed by the suffix ës.

Examples

Perfect aspect

Description

The perfect aspect is a perfective aspect used to describe an event that took place in the past and has finished, while the result is still visible, effecting the time reported or is in some other way of interest. It is often used in combination with an adposition of time.

Formation

The perfect aspect is formed by the suffix il.

Examples

Habitual aspect

Description

The habitual aspect is used to describe events that are habitual or reoccuring, typically at more or less regular intervals. It is typically used in combination with an adposition if time that includes 'every'. The habitual aspect differs from the potential in that the latter may occur at random intervals, and typically describes more generic events.

Formation

The habitual aspect is formed by the suffix it.

Examples

Repetitive aspect

Description

The repetitive aspect is used to describe an event that occurs in a repetitive manner. Exactly what constitutes 'repetitive' depends on the context. When used with verbs that govern an implicit repetitiveness, e.g. 'to knock', it may indicate a longer time span than when using the progressive.

Formation

The repetitive aspect is formed bu the suffix òsk.

Examples

Potential aspect

Description

The potential aspect is used to describe events that are reoccuring, typically not at any regular interval (in which it differs from the habitual). It differs from the declarative and the universal in that the event itself is non-continuous (although the potential for the event to happen is continuous).

Formation

The potential aspect is formed by the suffix ig.

Examples

Generic aspect

Description

The generic aspect is used to describe a state that is generally occuring (though not necessarily always).

Comparisson to other aspects of state

The generic differs from the declarative in that the state described by the latter may end and is non-generic. The generic differs from the universal in that the state described by the latter is assumed to be always true, while the generic describes a state that may very well be false in certain cases.

Formation

The generic aspect is formed by the suffix ìst.

Examples

Declarative aspect

Description

The declarative aspect is used to describe a state that is currently occuring, and is not expected to end (although it could). It is used for specific, non-generic states.

Comparisson to other aspects of state

See description here.

Formation

The declarative aspect is formed by the suffix ôr.

Examples

Universal aspect

Description

The universal aspect is used to describe a state that cannot normally end, or to describe a universal truth.

Comparisson to other aspects of state

See description here.

Formation

The universal aspect is formed by the suffix ìt.

Examples

Mood

Imperative mood

Description

The imperative mood is used to indicate the speaker thinks it is of utmost importance that what is said is brought about. It is in most circumstances concidered impolite to use the imperative, as it signals that the speaker expects complete conformance of the one(s) addressed.

Formation

The imperative mood is formed by the suffix ay.

Examples

Incentive mood

Description

The incentive mood is used to indicate the speaker thinks it is of great importance that what is said is brought about, either to the one(s) addressed or to himself. The speaker expects the one(s) addressed to conform to what he says, unless there are very good reasons not to. The incentive mood is also used when the imperative mood is considered rude.

Formation

The incentive mood is formed by the suffix ot.

Examples

Advisive mood

Description

The advisive mood is used to indicate the speaker advises what is said to the one(s) addressed, or when speaking of others what could be advised to them. It carries an implicit "I think it is the sensible thing to do". The advisive mood may also be used euphemistically instead of the incentive mood or the imperative mood.

Formation

The advisive mood is formed by the suffix ìstr.

Examples

Suggestive mood

Description

The suggestive mood is used to indicate the speaker offers what is said as a suggestion. He may or may not expect an answer, and may expect agreement or disagreement, as conformance is completely optional.

Formation

The suggestive mood is formed by the suffix ètl.

Examples

Invitive mood

Description

The invitive mood is used to indicate the speaker invites the one(s) addressed to do what is said. The speaker probably expects the one(s) addressed to follow up on his invitation as he feels it is to their benefit, although conformance is completely optional.

Formation

The invitive mood is formed by the suffix ôk.

Examples

Precative mood

Description

The precative mood is used to indicate the speaker requests the one(s) addressed to do what is said, which is to his benefit. The speaker may or may not expect the one(s) addressed to follow up on his suggestion as conformance is completely optional, although it may be considered rude on the side of the one(s) addressed not to do so. The precative mood may be used in a question sentence for politeness, in which case the hypothetical mood is added as well.

Formation

The precative mood is formed by the suffix òst.

Examples

Conditional mood

Description

The conditional mood is used in the apodosis of conditional sentences in which the apodosis comes about as the logical consequence of the protasis being true. The protasis is not marked with the conditional mood, but with the hypothetical.

Formation

The conditional mood is formed by the suffix òm.

Examples

Hypothetical mood

Description

The hypothetical mood has a few uses. Its basic use is to signal the speaker is uncertain about the truth value of his utterance, without providing certainty. As an extension, the hypothetical is used in the protasis of conditional sentences, to signal the truth value of the condition is uncertain. The apodosis may also use the hypothetical, in case it is uncertain whether it will come about, even if the protasis becomes true.

The second use is in a subclause after the subordinating conjunction jìh, "whether", to indicate the subclause is hypothetical instead of indicative. As an extension, the hypothetical is used in non-rhethorical polar questions, to indicate the answer to the question is unknown (note that polar questions also start with jìh).

Combined with the satisfactive and dissatisfactive moods, the hypothetical is used to indicate certain types of optative modality.

Formation

The hypothetical mood is formed by the suffix àm.

Examples

Counterfactual mood

Description

The counterfactual mood is used to indicate that what is said is counterfactual to what is assumed is or will be the actual situation. The counterfactuality is presented as neutral; if desired, one of the moods of epistemic certainty can be used for further specification.

In conditional sentences, the counterfactual is used in both the protasis and apodosis when the protasis is counterfactual. It may be used in the apodosis only, the protasis being marked by the hypothetical, in case the apodosis will not come true, even if the protasis is.

Combined with the satisfactive and dissatisfactive, the counterfactual is used to indicate certain types of optative modality.

Formation

The counterfactual mood is formed by the suffix ìm.

Examples

Speculative mood

Description

The speculative mood is used to indicate the speaker makes an educated guess at the truth, but is not sure whether he is right.

Formation

The speculative mood is formed by the suffix ôl.

Examples

Assumptive mood

Description

The assumptive mood is used to indicate the speaker assumes something to be true based on prior knowledge, but is not sure whether he is right.

Formation

The assumptive mood is formed by the suffix ìsk.

Examples

Deductive mood

Description

The deductive mood is used to indicate the speaker assumes something to be true based on deduction or conviction, and assumes he is right.

Formation

The deductive mood is formed by the suffix èst.

Examples

Dubatative mood

Description

The dubitative mood is used to indicate the speaker is conveying secondhand information, and that he is very uncertain about its truth value.

Formation

The dubitative mood is formed by the suffix ôtr.

Examples

Allegeative mood

Description

The allegeative mood is used to indicate the speaker is conveying secondhand information, and that he takes a neutral standpoint on its truth value.

Formation

The allegeative mood is formed by the suffix ìk.

Examples

Reputative mood

Description

The reputative mood is used to indicate the speaker is conveying secondhand information, and that he assumes that what is said is true based on his opinion about the credibility of the source (although he doesn't commit to its truth).

Formation

The reputative mood is formed by the suffix ed.

Examples

Quotative mood

Description

The quotative mood is used to indicate the speaker is conveying secondhand information, and that he commits to the truth of what is said based on his opinion about the credibility of the source. Note that despite its name, the quotative is not an evidential.

Formation

The quotative mood is formed by the suffix ìtr.

Examples

Joint concord mood

Description

The joint concord mood is used to indicate the speaker considers that what is said a prior agreement between the one(s) addressed and the speaker. It signals an implicit "as you know we agreed on", to remind the one(s) addressed of their prior comitment. The joint concord mood is used to stress that the event is of mutual benefit, or at least that the speaker does not expect disagreement.

Formation

The joint concord mood is formed by the suffix ôsk.

Examples

Disjoint concord mood

Description

The disjoint concord mood is used to indicate the speaker considers that what is said is a prior agreement between him and some other party or between the one(s) addressed and some other party. In the former case, the disjoint concord mood is used to stress that the event is more or less inevitable and/or non-negotionable, in the latter case it is used to stress that the speaker may not take responsibility for the outcome of the event.

Formation

The disjoint concord mood is formed by the suffix ôlk.

Examples

External concord mood

Description

The external concord mood is used to indicate the speaker considers that what is said a prior agreement between parties not including himself and the one(s) addressed. It may be used to indicate that the speaker does not consider a comitment to the agreement, and does not or may not expect the one(s) addressed to comit to it as well.

Formation

The external concord mood is formed by the suffix ìlk.

Examples

Traditional mood

Description

The traditional mood is used to indicate the speaker conveys what he believes a well-known truth, commonly held believe or conviction, or tradition. It is often combined with the generic aspect to emphasize its general nature.

Formation

The traditional mood is formed by the suffix ôt.

Examples

Acceptive mood

Description

The acceptive mood is used to indicate the speaker's strong believe in what is said. It has a whole range of related uses, e.g. when the speaker vouches for the truth of what is said (especially in combination with the quotative, for emphasis) or to fortify what is said, e.g. in an exclamation.

Formation

The acceptive mood is formed by the suffix àyt.

Examples

Rejective mood

Description

The rejective mood is used to indicate the speaker strongly disbelieves what is said. It has a whole range of related uses, e.g. when the speaker makes an ironic affirmation of something he thinks will not happen, or to indicate that the speaker does not believe second hand information (e.g. in combination with the dubitative or the allegeative).

Formation

The rejective mood is formed by the suffix àn.

Examples

Satisfactive mood

Description

The satisfactive mood is used to indicate the speaker feels a positive effect of what is said. It may be used with the hypothetical to indicate optative modality, which contrasts with the obligative in that the latter expresses wish or hope from a moral or communal perspective, while the use of the satisfactive always indicates wish or hope for (direct or indirect) personal benefit. The satisfactive may be used with the counterfactual to indicate hortative modality, or regret for something not happening.

Formation

The satisfactive mood is formed by the suffix agy.

Examples

Dissatisfactive mood

Description

The dissatisfactive mood is used to indicate the speaker feels a negative effect of what is said. It may be used with the hypothetical to indicate a 'reversed' optative modality (i.e. wishing or hoping something does not come about), and with the counterfactual to indicate joy for something not happening.

Formation

The dissatisfactive mood is formed by the suffix abr.

Examples

Approbative mood

Description

The approbative mood is used to indicate the speaker strongly approves of or agrees with what is said. When reporting speech or thoughts, the verb of the main clause is marked with the approbative mood (although the reported speech or thoughts may also contain an approbative, in case that was part of the original information). Verbs having a first person subject are not usually marked with the approbative, although may be for emphasis, nor are subordinate clauses of verbs expressing thought or opinion.

Formation

The approbative mood is formed by the suffix igy.

Examples

Reprobative mood

Description

The reprobative mood is used to indicate the speaker strongly disapproves of or disagrees with what is said. Like the approbative, the reprobative is marked on the verb of the main clause when reporting speech or thoughts (although the reported speech or thoughts may also contain an reprobative, in case that was part of the original information). Verbs having a first person subject are not usually marked with the reprobative, although may be for emphasis, nor are subordinate clauses of verbs expressing thought or opinion.

Formation

The reprobative mood is formed by the suffix ibr.

Examples

Obligative mood

Description

The obligative mood is used to indicate that the speaker feels what is said is a moral obligation, which he may expect the one(s) addressed to agree with.

Formation

The obligative mood is formed by the suffix ôs.

Examples

Voice

Direct passive voice

Description

The direct passive voice promotes the direct object of a sentence to subject, and demotes the subject to direct object. Not every direct object can be promoted this way: direct objects that are promoted oblique objects (see also here (todo)) cannot be promoted to subject. Some verbs that have a non-patient, non-theme direct object (e.g. vola, see here (todo)) for a full list) can also not be promoted.

As with any Kotanian verb, the direct object of the passive sentence (i.e. the demoted subject) may be omitted. Other objects are not affected (but may also be omitted if so desired).

Formation

The direct passive voice is formed by the suffix os.

Examples

Indirect passive voice

Description

The indirect passive voice promotes the indirect object of a sentence to subject, and demotes the subject to indirect object.

Formation

The indirect passive voice is formed by the suffix ër.

Examples

Instrumental voice

Description

The instrumental voice promotes the instrumental object of a sentence to subject, and demotes the subject to instrumental object (although it is often not expressed).

Formation

The instrumental voice is formed by the suffix abl.

Examples

Middle voice

Description

The main use of the middle voice is to promote the direct object of a sentence to subject, expressing that the subject is a non-volitional experiencer. The middle voice is therefore extensively used with verbs indicating the causing of harm (kill, drown, injure, hit) or loss of control (fall, trip). As opposed to the direct passive voice, a sentence using the middle voice does not express the original subject (even not demoted), as an agent is not seen to be present.

A second, less employed use of the middle voice is to indicate the subject of a sentence is not in control, but instead is being made to undergo the experience. It can be used with both intransitive and transitive verbs, although in the latter case typically an object is present to avoid confusion with the above mentioned main use.

Formation

The middle voice is formed by the suffix èm.

Examples

Nominalizers

Animate agentive

Description

The animate agentive nominalizer is used to derive the animate agent from a verb (or experiencer, for those verbs that take an experiencer as subject), where 'animate' is taken to refer to a concrete individual initiating or performing the event the verb describes. Though the meaning of the resulting noun can usually be inferred from the meaning of the verb, many common nouns derived with this suffix have a primary or secondary meaning that has a non-literal meaning, e.g. indicating a profession.

Formation

The animate agentive nominalizer is formed by the suffix one.

Examples

There are nouns that have a stem ending in on, which are not derived from a verb and do not have an agentive meaning, e.g. ptone, "earth" and syone, "mother". There is also a noun suffix on, that indicates a discourse topic shift.

Inanimate agent

Description

The inanimate agentive nominalizer is used to derive the inanimate agent from a verb, where 'inanimate' is taken to refere to everything not biologically alive (e.g. wheather phenomena, machines, etc.), but also to abstract groups of animate beings (typically human) that operate as a single force. Like nouns formed with the animate agent nominalizer, the nouns resulting from applying the inanimate agent suffix may have a primary or secondary meaning that cannot be directly inferred from the meaning of the verb.

Formation

The inanimate agentive nominalizer is formed by the suffix oge.

Examples

Instrumental

Description

The instrumental nominalizer is used to derive an instrument from a verb. Since there are not many verbs with an instrument in their semantic paradigm, even more than with the animate agentive and inanimate agentive nominalizers, the nouns resulting from applying the instrumental nominalizers have a meaning that is usually much narrower than could be expected from the meaning of the verb alone.

Formation

The instrumental nominalizer is formed by the suffix oke.

Examples

Locative

Description

The locative nominalizer is used to derive a location from a verb. Since verbs cannot have a location in their semantic paradigm, many verbs do not have a derivation with this suffix. For those that have, the resulting noun is usually idiosyncratic or unpredictable given the meaning of the verb, with a much narrower meaning than could be expected from the meaning of the verb alone.

Formation

The locative nominalizer is formed by the suffix ote.

Examples

Many nouns have a stem ending in ot, which are not derived from a verb and do not have a locative meaning, e.g. kote, "society" and tirote, "tooth".

Verbalizers

Adpositional verbalizer

Description

The adpostional verbalizer makes a verb out of a locative or directional adposition2. The resulting verb expresses that the subject is located or moving in relation to the direct object (which is the original adpositional object).

2Directional adpositions are usually expressed as adverbs, but can nevertheless take the adpositional verbalizer.

Formation

The adpositional verbalizer is formed by the suffix iska.

Examples