Appendices

Verbs

Auxiliary verbs

Kotanian has the following verbs that can be used as modal auxiliary verbs:

Kotanian has the following verbs that can be used as modal aspectual verbs:

Note that derived forms of these verbs cannot be used as auxiliary (with the exception of the above listed kemela and simela), and must be used as normal verb instead (taking a subclause or gerund as argument). Examples are:

Verbal suffixes attaching to auxiliary verbs

As a rule, verbal suffixes attach to the main verb. There are exceptions to this rule, in that certain aspectual suffixes attach to aspectual auxiliary verbs, and certain modal suffixes attach to modal auxiliary verbs.

auxiliary verbsuffixes
kèlaàm, ...
......

Verb prefixes

Kotanian verbs can be combined with derivational prefixes to alter their meaning. Some of these are productive, allowing them to be applied to almost any verb, others are restricted to certain semantic domains and/or have idiosyncratic meanings. A list of these prefixes with examples:

prefixmeaningexample
aback, de-, undoarama - to count down / undress, from rama - to count (up) / dress
geback (of movement)gecea - to go back, from (ma)cea - to go
gekòma - to respond, from kòma - to answer
gotransfer, movementgoara - to sell, from ara - to trade
gokalaga - to pass on, from kalaga - to give
ìmnegative effectìmpalana - to steal, from palana - to take
ìmmala - to slip, from mala - to glide
ìnreluctantìnsìlna - to put up with, to tolerate, from sìlna - to like
ìrinitiateìrsawa - to study, from sawa - to witness
ìrbyoma - to negotiate, from byoma - to talk
keagainkebyoma - to repeat (orally), from byoma - to talk
kemela - to continue (after interruption), from mela, to continue (without interruption)
kòntogetherkòngala - to meet, from gala - to find
nòtbefore (time)nòttnëna - to think ahead ("on forehand"), from tnëna - to think
ointensifierotnëna - to try to solve, from tnëna - to think
okawa - to enlighten, from kawa - to make understood, to explain
transformnôralea - to translate, from ralea - to speak
nyanegative effect (through force)nyapalana - to rob, from palana - to take
nyalidza - to destroy, from lidza - to break
pònjoinpòntayna - to join, from tàyna - to do
pòntara - to go together, from tara - to succeed
reduplicate, copyretrieta - to teach, from trieta - to know, to have knowledge
seintentional (with verbs of sensory input)semëra - to look at, from mëra - to see
sesifa - to listen, from sifa - to hear
sèn1unintentional, uncontrolledsèntàyna - to happen, from tàyna - to do
side-, return from statesijëwa - to wake up, from jëwa - to sleep
sivàkta - to change one's mind, from vàkta - to have an opinion
artificialsôfrana - to water, from frana - to rain
speafter (time)spegara - to predict, from gara - to envision (archaic)
teup, past, furthertetema - to put on top, from tema - to put
tetròyva - to wait for, from tròyva - to wait
tlàyawaytlàypalana - to remove, to take away, from palana - to take

1sèm before /m/, /p/, /b/.